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As a vibrant industrial hub, Australia boasts diverse sectors, from construction to oil and gas. But with this industrial diversity comes an equally diverse set of workplace hazards, particularly in confined spaces. Industries where workers must operate within tight, enclosed, and often complex environments, demand rigorous training and a keen understanding of safety protocols. 

In this blog post, we delve into the unique confined space training requirements across a few key industries in Australia: construction, mining, manufacturing, oil and gas, and utilities.


As one of Australia’s most significant industries, construction naturally presents a myriad of confined space challenges. Construction workers frequently find themselves in tunnels, manholes, sewers, and other confined spaces where the risks of falls, engulfment, asphyxiation, or exposure to toxic substances are prevalent.

Confined Space Training

Training for confined spaces in the construction sector goes beyond basic safety and first aid. It includes risk assessment, permit procedures, non-entry rescue techniques, atmospheric testing, and usage of personal protective equipment (PPE). 

Training is typically tailored to the specific tasks and environments workers are expected to handle, in compliance with the Australian Standard AS 2865-2009 for safe working in a confined space. Learn more about training options at FMS Brisbane.


Mining is another sector where confined space hazards are inherent in the job. Mine workers frequently operate in confined underground spaces, exposed to risks like hazardous gases, cave-ins, and equipment accidents.

In Australia, the mining industry is regulated under the Mining and Quarrying Safety and Health Act 1999 (Qld), which necessitates comprehensive confined space training. This training covers emergency procedures, hazard identification, risk control measures, and respiratory protective equipment use. More advanced training may involve complex gas detection and life support systems.


In manufacturing, confined spaces can be found in storage tanks, silos, reaction vessels, and even large machinery. The primary risks here revolve around harmful substances, oxygen deficiency or enrichment, and mechanical hazards.

Confined space training in manufacturing often includes identifying and controlling mechanical and electrical energy sources (lockout/tagout), awareness of hazardous substances, ventilation principles, and emergency rescue and recovery. Per the Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011, this training must also stress the importance of confined space entry permits and safety watchers.

Oil and Gas

The oil and gas sector involves high confined space work, particularly in offshore platforms, drilling rigs, and refineries. Workers in these settings face hazards like flammable atmospheres, pressurised systems, and toxic substances.

Confined space training for this sector must be rigorous, including advanced hazard assessment, hot work in confined spaces, use of intrinsic safety equipment, and comprehensive emergency response training. 

Under Australia’s Model Work Health and Safety Regulations, the focus is on preventing any ignition sources in a potentially explosive atmosphere and ensuring the safe operation of equipment.


Lastly, the utility sector encompasses water, electricity, and telecommunications, each with unique confined space considerations. This includes access shafts, vaults, manholes, sewers, pipelines, and electrical substations.

Confined Space Training

Here, training generally covers hazard identification, control measures, the use of appropriate PPE, and rescue procedures. It’s important to note that training needs to be tailored to the specific utility sector, given the different hazards present. For example, workers in the water industry might need more emphasis on drowning hazards and sewage gas risks. In contrast, the electrical sector would require more focus on electrical isolation and arc flash.

Across Australia’s diverse industrial landscape, confined space training is a crucial aspect of workplace safety. By understanding the unique requirements of each sector; organisations can ensure that their employees are not only equipped with the knowledge to operate safely but also the ability to respond effectively in emergencies.

While the specifics vary, some key themes persist. These include the identification of hazards, the implementation of control measures, and the development of comprehensive emergency response strategies. In Australia’s high-risk industrial sectors, robust confined space training isn’t just a legal requirement – it’s a critical line of defence in safeguarding workers’ lives.

In Australia, employers are required to take out workers’ compensation insurance to compensate employees who get injured at work. The laws governing this cover vary by state, but some principles cut across all states. It’s important to get acquainted with them if you’re an employer or an employee planning to work in Australia.

Work Injury Compensation

What is Workers’ Compensation?

It’s a compulsory statutory insurance cover that protects workers who get injured or sick at work. Any business that has employed workers on a full-time or part-time basis under a written or oral contract must take out a workers’ compensation cover. 

The cover also protects casual and seasonal employees and, in some cases, subcontractors and contractors. As such, if a worker suffers a workplace injury, the cover ensures the worker is compensated for:

  • Lost wages if they have missed work
  • Hospital stays, medical bills, and costs associated with physical rehabilitation
  • A lump sum payment if the worker sustains a permanent injury
  • The difference in wages if the worker needs to take a lower-paying job
  • Funeral expenses and family support

Note, a workers’ compensation coverage is a no-fault type of compensation. This means an employee is entitled to compensation even if they didn’t act according to the company’s procedures. However, this rule doesn’t apply if an employee engages in serious misconduct. 

If you are entitled to Work Injury Compensation, it’s crucial to find suitable lawyers that can best help you with your claim. Work Cover Helpline is a Brisbane based law firm that has a wealth of knowledge and years of industry experience to ensure you get the best outcome. They also have a no win no fee guarantee so don’t hesitate to get in touch if you’re needing legal advice in the Brisbane area.

Launching a Claim

Once an employee sustains an injury at work, the first step in launching a claim is to inform the employer about the injury. This is because you may lose your right to get compensation if you don’t tell the employer you’ve been hurt. 

According to Australian law, an employee must file workers’ compensation within six months of injury. After filing, the employer’s insurance company will work with you to develop an injury management plan.

The insurance company then requires the employee to obtain a First Medical Certificate from the doctor, showing all the injuries sustained. Normally, the insurance cover allows the injured employee to choose the doctor, specialist, or physiotherapist they want. However, the insurer or employer may recommend an independent medical examination, and you’re obliged to attend all of them.

The second document you need when launching the claim is a workers’ compensation claim form. Fill in all the necessary details and submit the form to the employer along with the First Medical Certificate.

Lodging the Claim with the Insurer

The employer then sends the documents to the insurance company to start the compensation process. According to Australian laws, the employer should lodge the forms with the insurer within five days. On the other hand, the insurer must respond to the application within 14 days.

The insurance may accept, decline, or put the claim on hold pending medical reports or further investigation. If the claim is declined, the employee can file an appeal.

Getting Compensated

The compensation covers loss of wages and expenses associated with treating the injury. Most people receive the usual salary for the first 13 weeks, but it’s reduced to a lower amount after that. 

However, if you decide to file a common law claim, you aren’t entitled to any salary. Some employees elect to file common law claims if they sustained severe or multiple injuries in the workplace. Such claims have a high compensation based on the premise that you’re permanently incapacitated and can’t return to meaningful employment.

A workers’ compensation cover also ensures the insurance company pays for medical expenses associated with paying for specialists, general practitioners, and rehabilitation centers. 

Resuming Work

The cover requires the employee to provide a Progress Medical Certificate showing if they’re fit to resume their pre-injury occupation, unfit, or need modification duties. If you’re partially fit to take on alternative duties, the doctor is legally obliged to state this on the certificate.

Taking Leave

If the employee is unfit to resume work but is receiving workers’ compensation, they aren’t entitled to leave. This rule differs by state. For example, in New South Wales, the Workers Compensation program allows workers to take annual leave while receiving compensation. 

Also, the employee can accrue annual leave as long as the compensation law permits it. Other states like Western Australia and Queensland follow suit.

The Workers’ Compensation scheme is a broad and complex subject. However, this should help you familiarize yourself with the most important areas. It would also help if you enlisted a workers’ compensation lawyer’s help to assist you in navigating the system, and if you’re local to Work Cover Helpline, it’s worth giving them a call.

About Professional Education services: Professional Education Services, LP (PEPS) is a California limited partnership. PERS provides quality continuing education largely for accountants, CPA’s, registered CPAs, enrolled agents and managers nationwide.


PERS offers many options. Students can get accredited with their chosen school of choice as well as a variety of non-profit organizations nationwide including the American Board of Accountancy (ABOA) and the National Association of Boards of Accountancy (NABOC). PEPS also has an online degree program.

PERS is very effective. They help the professional gain access to the latest technology, training and tools to help them continue to advance in their career. Most PERS courses are scheduled around the calendar so that students have at least six months during which they can complete the coursework. Also, PEPS provides online courses so that students can attend their courses when it is convenient for them.

The learning tools that are used are also great. PEPS uses audio-visual tools, digital textbooks and interactive whiteboards to help their students stay on task and keep their focus on their chosen course. Also, PERS uses virtual learning modules to make their courses more interesting.

Courses offered include Accounting, Corporate, Business, Consumer, Information Technology, Real Estate, Supply Chain Management, Taxation, and Venture Capital. This list includes all courses that will be useful in the work environment today.

Professional Education Courses

Professional education courses are an important part of your overall education. These courses not only teach you the skills you need for your future but also help you to become a more knowledgeable employee. By taking classes in these fields, you will learn what it takes to effectively run your business, learn about new technology and meet your clients.

professional education

Accountancy, CPA, and CMA courses in California, for example, are offered by several schools and are designed to help those who are interested in becoming CPA’s. or CMA’s.

Courses are usually broken up into many units, but some courses may take a couple of months to complete. If you have an interest in a certain area, you will be able to complete many courses within a year.


When you enrol in a course in accounting, you will be given a CD ROM containing lesson plans and study material. Besides, you will be assigned a mentor, or CPA, to guide you through your studies. This will give you the support that you need as you become an accountant.

The first part of the course is usually about learning how to prepare a financial statement. You will be given a detailed account sheet and a chart to help you organize this information. The next step is about learning how to organize and analyze financial data and interpret it.

To learn how to perform these activities, you will need to take classes in bookkeeping. and bookkeeping software, which will provide you with many opportunities to practice the skills that you learn.

The final part of the course is about using financial statements to help you understand the basics of business. You will also learn how to determine trends, generate a business plan, use a computer to conduct business analysis and apply to the account. You will be required to create a profit and loss statement, organize your books and organize your finances to determine where your money is going.

Many accountants need to work closely with their mentors during the entire duration of their course. It is their mentors who will make all the decisions for them. So it is important to find a good instructor who can help you succeed.

The importance of access standards has become even more significant with the growth of medical technology and its ability to reduce or eliminate the need for a physical barrier between the patient and the medical professional. In the past, most physicians and other health care professionals used manual instruments and techniques when working in a medical setting.

While some patients were comfortable in this environment, others simply did not know where they stood concerning the most appropriate care or the most effective means of addressing their particular patient’s condition. This led to many patients who were not receiving optimal care being turned away from the emergency room when the first symptoms appeared.

Modern Tech

With more sophisticated technology and tools, patients no longer had to put up with this lack of access. Today, some devices can be worn by patients while at home and can also provide the same level of safety as the use of a traditional cane by patients in a doctor’s office.

Patients who use these products can remain in their homes without fear of falling, getting stepped on, or being bumped into. As long as the product is appropriately fitted and the patient is wearing the product, the patient can rest assured that they are in a safe environment that provides them with the level of security and comfort that they need.

When it comes to safety, devices that use the latest technology have been designed to be secure and safe as well. These devices are often designed with ergonomic and wrist support in mind to help provide comfort for the users.

accessibility standards

Accessibility Standards

In addition to the safety of the devices, the accessibility standards that are required to be met by medical staff when handling patient’s medical records, equipment, or supplies have become even more important. By ensuring that all employees have proper training in proper storage and use of these supplies, the staff’s ability to effectively work with patients will be greatly increased.

If an employee does not know how to use the equipment properly, it can lead to unnecessary delays and problems with equipment that may have otherwise have been prevented. Medical equipment such as IV pumps and blood pressure monitors have now become more common, but even these devices have a specific and unique way of being used so that the staff use can be optimized and the equipment can work efficiently.

Patients can and should be provided with a much more comfortable environment if their health is being cared for properly. By maintaining access standards, the staff can use the correct and effective equipment, thereby reducing the risk of a patient falling or becoming injured in a medical setting.

Medical Records

Medical records must be kept as safe and secure as possible. The more secure the records, the less likely they are to be compromised, stolen, or otherwise destroyed.

Keeping these records protected also means ensuring that patients can read and understand all of their personal and sensitive information. There are many different ways in which this can be done. Some documents can be password protected or locked electronically; some can be printed out in paper form, while others may even have to be copied to make it easier for the patient to find and read what they want.

Ensuring that these documents are secure is essential to the overall safety of the patients and medical staffs as well as providing a better experience for the patients. By keeping this information out of the hands of patients and medical staffs, the patient has the best possible chance of being treated properly and safely.

The use of this type of medical equipment is necessary to ensure that all patients receive the level of comfort that they require. As medical professionals continue to develop new technologies, using the right devices, the use of these supplies will improve and more patients will continue to live better lives.

The medical companies in the pharmaceutical, biomedical, and medical instrument sectors represent an important sector of medical product focused on the creation and development of innovative medical technologies. Biomedical companies are often called upon to research and develop new medicines and other drugs. The medical device and diagnostic companies often manufacture medical devices such as hearing aids and mammography equipment. These companies often combine research and development with the production of healthcare products for both clinical and non-clinical applications.

Pharmaceutical Products

The pharmaceutical companies primarily produce medicines, although they do make many other products as well. The pharmaceutical products produced by these companies include cancer treatments, cardiovascular medications, antibiotics, anti-anxiety and antidepressant medications, thyroid medications, blood pressure monitors, antihistamines, vaccines, cholesterol and blood thinner medications, and inhalers. These products are distributed through local pharmacies, over the Internet, and by mail order. Some are licensed to sell the drugs only; others have additional sales channels.

Medical products for both patients and physicians can be marketed through the use of direct-to-consumer advertising and direct marketing to physicians. Direct-to-consumer advertising allows companies to reach directly into the public’s awareness of the products they manufacture. Direct-to-physician advertising gives patients a direct and personal relationship with the physician who will administer their medical care. These products may also be marketed through the use of indirect marketing channels such as pharmaceutical companies’ affiliations with professional societies. For example, in some countries, pharmaceutical companies that manufacture and distribute pharmaceutical products are required to participate in these organizations.

The pharmaceutical companies are also required to perform studies and test the quality and safety of their products before they are marketed. This is known as clinical or pre-market studies. The results of these studies may be used by drug manufacturers to improve their products or to prove their safety for patients who try them. Besides, the clinical studies are necessary for the Food and Drug Administration to approve a drug for commercial distribution.

healthcare products

Medical Devices

Manufacturers of medical devices, particularly those that help people with mobility impairments such as wheelchairs, provide equipment and information to help the users to carry out their daily activities. These devices, including mobility chairs, can also be marketed as pharmaceutical products, although manufacturers do not need FDA approval to market them. A manufacturer who manufactures a product to market it as a medical device or a mobility chair has a responsibility to demonstrate to the FDA that it is safe, reliable, durable, and effective.

Diagnostic and therapeutic medical instrument manufacturers create medical instruments and devices that can help medical professionals to diagnose, treat, and monitor certain types of diseases, conditions, or injuries. They are the companies that design, manufacture, and distribute medical devices and equipment for a range of medical applications. They work closely with physicians and hospitals to determine the best ways to diagnose, treat, and monitor patients. Diagnostic products include CT scanners, MRI machines, x-ray machines, surgical instruments, ultrasound machines, catheters, blood pressure monitors, and other similar medical equipment.

Medical Instruments

Diagnostic and therapeutic medical instrument manufacturers are also responsible for designing and manufacturing diagnostic equipment that is used for research purposes, but which can be used to diagnose, treat, monitor, and monitor other medical conditions such as infections. A manufacturer who develops diagnostic medical equipment and devices to diagnose, treat and monitor patients must perform clinical trials. to show that their products are effective in treating certain diseases or conditions before they are marketed.

No one company produces all healthcare products. Each manufacturer has its own set of criteria for determining what constitutes a medical product, its development process, its design and manufacture, its marketing strategies, and its regulations for clinical trials and for marketing its products. Manufacturers must comply with federal, state, and local regulations for each state they operate in, and manufacturers are required to meet FDA requirements.

The Disability Rights Movement, or DMRM as it is commonly called, is an international social movement to promote equal rights and equal opportunities for those with disabilities. Its goal is to eliminate discrimination, protect disabled individuals and their families from harassment, and provide them with quality services that can help them live their lives free of disability. As the disability rights movement grows, so too do the challenges that are faced by those that are fighting for the rights and freedoms that can be afforded to those who have disabilities.


The Disability Rights Organization, or DRO, has been working on behalf of disabled individuals for over ten years. Its primary focus is on the enforcement of the rights of disabled people in every country. In the United States, they are primarily known as the National Council on Disability. In Europe, they are also known as the European Disability Platform.

Their mission is to work toward a world where there is equality of opportunity for those with disabilities and those that are not. There are many organizations, government agencies, and even private companies that have made commitments to the protection of the rights of people with disabilities. Some of these include:

DRP is also very active in lobbying the governments of the United States and other countries to improve their laws to better accommodate people who have disabilities. They also have been able to get the United States government to amend the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The government has taken note of the DMRM’s advocacy efforts and has issued regulations that help protect the rights of disabled people. One of these regulations, Section 12102 of the Americans with Disabilities Act, prohibits discrimination based on disability in most areas of public accommodations.

In addition to these regulations, the Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Employment Policy has been helping people who have been denied employment due to their disability or inability to work. Their enforcement division has also been responsible for passing regulations that will provide workers with more job opportunities.

disability rights

Importance of Education

Since its inception, the DRP has been able to gain some important victories.

When working on issues related to disability rights, the DRP emphasizes the importance of educating both the public and the medical community about what disabilities are capable of doing. For example, they have worked to improve educational programs for people who may have been excluded from the classroom due to their disability.

They also focus on changing policies, laws, and procedures when implementing changes to the environment that can make things easier for people who are unable to perform routine tasks. for themselves. They also work to develop new ways of evaluating how people can perform certain tasks so that they can be certified for such tasks and then be provided with employment that can be performed by more capable members of the disabled community.

Another key component of the DRP is the advocacy that it receives from the disabled community itself. This includes encouraging their parents, caregivers, family members, friends, and others to voice their frustrations and concerns about the treatment of disabled people by the public at large.

The Disability Rights Education Program (DRIP) was created to provide training for those who work in the disability field. It provides tools and resources to assist people who are seeking to improve the way that they live.

The program also helps those who may have been discriminated against in the past gain better representation in the courts. so that they can improve their chances of receiving justice. for their plight.

The DRP also works with the public to educate the public about the importance of being involved in social change through various forms of activism, such as demonstrations, rallies, and marches. They work hard to encourage people to participate in and support their cause, including participating in demonstrations.

What is workplace training and why is it so important? Workplace training is the systematic process of developing efficiency, knowledge and skills in your job. Employees undergo different types of training based on their individual needs, the urgency of the need and the availability of available resources.

Training Categories

Training is divided into two categories: academic and practical. Academic training deals with a particular topic and is designed to teach workers how to do something or solve a problem. Practical training, however, is designed to train workers in the everyday operations and techniques that are essential for their job. The training must be done after a thorough assessment of the skills, knowledge and abilities of the individual. Training and assessment are also referred to as assessments.

These two types of workplace training benefit employers and employees. For employers, an assessment is a means to determine whether or not the worker needs additional training or if any existing skills need improvement. For employees, it can be a matter of life or death because failing to properly perform tasks can result in lost time and money.


Some employers require an employee to acquire a workplace training certificate for further employment. This certification acts as proof that the employee has already undergone a formal training session and has learned everything that was taught to him. A certificate can also serve as a bargaining chip when the employee decides to transfer his position.

Most employees do not necessarily require a job training certificate to move up in the company. An employer can ask for a formal training course or an assessment as a way of getting more valuable information from the employee.


Job training and assessment benefit both employers and employees because it can reduce the risks of job losses. Employees with better training and skills are less likely to get sick or become injured on the job. On the other hand, employers can identify those employees who have been able to learn new jobs without additional training, thus reducing the number of job vacancies which translates to more profits for the company.

workplace training

Assessment and training also help companies develop employee skills. Those skills may include leadership, communication and interpersonal skills. These skills will make the employees more desirable to their future employers and can also translate to more productive workers in the future.

Employers must assess the effectiveness of the training and assessment before they hire employees. This is because if they do not do, then the company could be losing out on potential employees. Even a well-planned assessment can have several disadvantages. The assessment should be done well and it should take into consideration not only the skills knowledge and abilities of the employees but also their personality traits.


One disadvantage of assessment and training is that it may be costly. There is also no guarantee that the employees will benefit from the training. The cost of the assessment may go higher if the employee fails to respond positively. Another disadvantage is that employees who fail to respond positively may not get the same results that other employees with a good assessment will get.

Assessments and training programs can have negative side effects for the company. Employees who are not properly trained and monitored may be less attentive and less interested in work. These employees may be more inclined to slack off and use their free time to do things that are not related to work.

Employers should ensure that the assessment is carefully structured and made with the needs and goals of the company in mind. Because some people have learning disabilities or may not be suited for certain work settings, the assessment must cover these aspects. before hiring them. The assessment should also be customized to meet the needs of the company.

Some assessment may need to be repeated every year to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the training and assessment. If the training program has had some positive results, then the employers should consider using the training in the future.

An electric mobility scooter helps disabled or limited-ability adults reclaim parts of the lives once thought unreachable. Shopping, travelling, and even going out of the door can be very difficult, especially for those with limited mobility. But an electric mobility scooter makes these activities possible, without the help of a motorized vehicle.


There are several types of batteries that are used in mobility scooters. These are battery packs, and battery packs which use “maintenance free” batteries, like NiCad. The different types of batteries available will depend upon the type of model and manufacturer, and the price range of the mobility scooters.

Mobility scooters, in general, come equipped with a battery charger. The charger is what charges the battery and is very important when charging the battery to ensure the battery’s life. A battery should be charged to at least 100% of its capacity after every trip. It is recommended that the battery charge is charged to its full capacity when the battery is not being used.

Purchase Guide

If you are shopping for a scooter for yourself, then you should take into consideration the fact that there are many low-cost options. Some mobility scooters are made by local small businesses who want to offer consumers with a less expensive option for mobility scooters. This can include things such as rebates and incentives, and even some store coupons which include free repairs for a year!

Another option for buying a good quality mobility scooter is to purchase one online. Many times online stores offer great deals, but be aware that a battery’s lifespan can be significantly shortened if it is not charged properly. Besides, there is no warranty with these types of scooters, so be sure to purchase a scooter battery that has been designed with maintenance in mind.

mobility scooter


Other accessories can make mobility scooters easier and safer for the elderly. A wheel holder is one of the most important accessories for any mobility scooters. These attach to the front wheel on the scooter and are useful for the elderly because they keep them from slipping on the pavement, or against traffic when maneuvering. A handheld cane holder is also a good accessory, which keeps a wheelchair from falling over while taking a step.

Scooters for seniors are available that provide a more traditional look to the scooters. Some scooters are designed with wheels and seats designed specifically for seniors, that have a traditional look. Some of these models can be easily folded up and stored. Others are designed in an upright position, which allows the user to be able to use them more easily in their home.

Scooters for seniors are an affordable and convenient way to use mobility. While there are many options for purchasing an electric scooter, be sure to consider the various options that are available for your needs. You can find a scooter that suits your specific needs, and budget, whether you are shopping for a full-size mobility scooter or a lower price mobility scooter.

Choosing the Right Scooter

It is important to have a scooter that is appropriate for your situation. Many seniors find it difficult to get around, and often find the use of a wheelchair is difficult for them. You should always consider your current physical condition when purchasing your mobility scooter.

One thing to keep in mind is the safety of your scooter. A safety scooter will give you an extra level of security and will allow you to continue to move around the home in safety. This will make your mobility more enjoyable.

Several manufacturers manufacture scooters for seniors, including Yamaha, Honda, and Schwinn. These companies make several different types of scooters that will meet your specific mobility needs.

There are many different brands of scooters available today, and the prices can vary greatly. If you are looking for the best price, then make sure you check out some of the top-quality scooters available on the market.